Profile of Google:
Google is a play on the word 'googol', which was coined by Milton Sirotta, nephew of American mathematician Edward Kasner, to refer to the number represented by 1 followed by 100 zeros. Google's use of the term reflects the company's mission to organize the immense amount of information available on the web and in the world.
Google uses a system called PageRank, in which web sites pass on values to one another based on the prominence of links and context in which a link is displayed. While understanding PageRank would require hours of reading - in short, the more links coming into a site from legitimate sources pays off. By legitimate, I mean not of "link farms", "free for alls", or other seen-as-spam techniques.
Google wants to promote the most informative resources and they choose to do this by measuring the amount of information on a page and parenting site. If your competition has three pages of one topic, and you offer 6 out of the gates - expect to leap frog them in the search engine results if you play the game properly.
How google works and finds pages:
Usually Google jumps from pages to pages Using the HREF and other hyperlink elements,
A small quote from google webmaster info,
" Google's robots jump from page to page on the Web via hyperlinks
We always have a possibility to think that we don't have link from any sites, even I had one site which was brand new it was not even hosted fully but the right next day googlebot has all the 30 pages of the site in its index, I was really puzzled how it got in and finally saw the link of this site where it was posted for review in a online coding site, so if you have link in some prominent site google will surely find your site and crawl it, it is just a matter of time before google finds a site,"
A quote from the google technology page about PageRank.
PageRank relies on the uniquely democratic nature of the web by using its vast link structure as an indicator of an individual page's value. In essence, Google interprets a link from page A to page B as a vote, by page A, for page B. But, Google looks at more than the sheer volume of votes, or links a page receives; it also analyzes the page that casts the vote. Votes cast by pages that are themselves "important" weigh more heavily and help to make other pages "important."
Important, high-quality sites receive a higher PageRank, which Google remembers each time it conducts a search. Of course, important pages mean nothing to you if they don't match your query. So, Google combines PageRank with sophisticated text-matching techniques to find pages that are both important and relevant to your search. Google goes far beyond the number of times a term appears on a page and examines all aspects of the page's content (and the content of the pages linking to it) to determine if it's a good match for your query.
Ability to Update
Optimizing for Google is NOT a one-time process. It takes the constant modification of many variables including titles, headlines, and number of incoming links.